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02.12.2013 / 09:02:21
Mikhail Bulgakov. Riddles and surprises "the MASTER AND MARGARITA" - experience of independent investigation. Part I
"… And I will tell you – having smiled,
Voland addressed to the master, - that the novel
Yours will bring you still surprises …"
M. Bulgakov "Master and Margarita"
INSTEAD OF THE PROLOGUE. MYSTERIOUS NOVEL
… Outside now – November, 2013. Passed 47 years since that moment as the well-known and mysterious Bulgakov novel "Master and Margarita" left to the reader. In the beginning – on Moscow magazine pages - and even if in "it is cut - the truncated look", but, despite it, - almost in all completeness of legalized "appearance" of the strangeness, singularity, a dissimilarity with anything read to that time.
Later it will be published around the world in various editions and collections, having personally embodied the Bulgakov dream thesis: "Manuscripts don't burn! ". About it hundreds volumes of researches will be written, tens various judgments and interpretation attempts will be stated.
Distinctly I remember how I who isn't able yet to realize all depth, completeness of novelty and eccentricity of Bulgakov creation – uncontrollably laughed loudly in youth over sarcastic pointedness of the comic moments of its plot. Obscured our look then – that a sin to conceal! - general general unbelief and religious semi-literacy. About bible and evangelical heroes we then could stick together a certain judgment only on gallery of images of world painting and a sculpture. This row was adjoined by acquaintances since the childhood "Faust" Goethe, and with it and bayronovsky "Cain", lermontovsky "Demon" and two-three more works. As it is possible to understand only today – at that time in vague awareness of striking novelty "The master and Margarita" only external outline, superficial currents were imprinted. Yes, perhaps, I together with the contemporaries realized that this novel continues in somebody new turn a subject of interaction of Faust and Mephistopheles. And Margarita's name in association with the well-known Gretchen and the heroine of the opera of Gounod of the same name – didn't seem very casual and not clear.
Moreover – in rather our Tashkent Theatrical and art institute not held down by a thinking zadannost the 70th I, still being the student obny of younger courses, I gave the report at interuniversity scientific conference on the subject "Ideas and Images of "Faust" in World Art". And even managed safely to come to that hard time and to a binding of a subject to ideas and images of the Bulgakov novel, having shown transformation in it is mute Goethe idea. And even according to the jury decision – I won a prize for extraordinary disclosure of a subject …
… But much, too many, nevertheless, gradually seemed in the novel strange, from positions of those times not giving in to judgment. Struck that among a heap of bastards, inhabitants, the pushful persons occupying Bulgakov Moscow of the beginning of the 30th years – it is biting, charming, and even somehow esthetically beautifully I managed the affairs … Satan! As it seemed then, he, and only he rendered all for everyone and everything – punished bastards, and even awarded heroes eternal firmness of Rest. (Of other Force which has recreated all real, during that time it was thought somehow abstractly, out of volume, an essence and depth. ) .
And what the Author wanted to oppose to this revelry of common people in his opustosheniyakh of spirit?
In days of old I would answer this question simply and unambiguously: two Elects – the Master and Margarita. In one of them the prototype – the author, in another – his spouse and a muse, beautiful and mysterious Elena Sergeevna Bulgagova was guessed. In such foreshortening Bulgakov's novel, at all his mighty and incomprehensible paradoxicality – seemed more available to understanding and "steady". The stereoscopic groteskovost of satire admired. I stunned and surprised camber "pilatovskikh" of scenes. I pacified as it seemed then – quite idyllic, the final as though allowing all peripetia.
But there was also certain, almost inaudible, but more and more "sprouting" mystery, incomprehensibility, mysteriousness. And in acts of the main symbolical characters something as warning red "stoplight" - disturbed and guarded soul …
… Promptly times changed. And with them – and ourselves. The nature of views of an essence of things was replaced also, the sweeping change was undergone by estimates of many seeming firm concepts and categories. The concept "mentality" - and with it was born so fashionable nowadays and something to reconsider attempts in a habitual circle of events and the phenomena. The fashionable stream of "seamy side" which has rushed on courses also are vital. and the creative rivers – in all the mean voice I began to yell that the person only – a biped animal with a set of the elementary instincts. The highest categories which haven't been washed away by this stream. – as though stiffened in confused silence. As if expecting – whether we will choose them in a muddy penalty fee of false values, or we will lose completely and finally? In process of removal of the seals of many ban, started sprouting anew and escapes of inclination to true, highest spirituality.
And somehow in itself the moment when became possible to look at Bulgakov's novel absolutely new view came, having appreciated its dissimilarity with the habitual. And having peered at its "strangeness", to try to make out in it that escaping a direct look that the author about the most primordial, main and difficult wanted to tell. But exactly for this purpose to risk to go let not indisputable, but rather independent way of "investigation".
The profession of the director is in many respects similar to a profession of the criminalist. "Private life" of heroes, motives of their acts, changes of characters it is necessary to recreate on separate, sometimes not to compatible "splinters" of the facts contradicting each other and events. The novel of Bulgakov which has become one of my most beloved works, - steadily teased and teases until now imagination an innuendo, stealthiness certain paradoxical, but the main bases. And I will risk to make attempt to apply that in practice of a dramatic art embodiment at theater call "the effective analysis" to Bulgakov's novel. This method which so similar to actions of the investigator in the course of investigation is of the confused crime - often brings to rather objective, but to absolutely unpredictable, unexpected conclusions. So, we will begin our way …
RIDDLE THE FIRST. THE MASTER AND MARGARITA – WHO ARE THEY?
What riddles of the novel appear not clearest and mysterious? There is a lot of them. And everyone is worthy a separate look and attention.
Here the first of them – an image of the Master. Why it, only of all heroes of the Bulgakov novel, is deprived of the NAME? Resolute ALL the others – from Margarita to the third-rate bartender – in the novel have names, most often symbolical in the pointedness. Whether it is casual? Or already in they are guarding roots of gradual loss by the hero own "I" under the influence of something, while not clear?
Here second riddle. According to ordinary representations, the mysterious real acting writer is embodied in an image of the anonymous Master. By word of mouth the known template saying repeats that a prototype of the Master in many respects undoubtedly is Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov.
But … But the recognized and skilled writer, the playwright, the feuilletonist, the director and even … the talented actor which sharp game great Stanislavsky admired – M. Bulgakov had in literary "baggage" of ten considerable works of big and small forms - novels, plays, stories, feuilletons. And having attentively got a grasp of the text, we realize that ONLY "creation" of the Master is the notorious novel about Pontius Pilate. About one other work which has been earlier written by it, in the novel of mentions isn't present. "The historian by training", the modest employee of one of the Moscow museums, at the beginning of the biography the one whom call the Master – till a certain instant IN ANY WAY and NI V THAN didn't prove as creative nature.
We will remember also another. Once, having put a hand in a basket with dirty linen, it finds in it … the advantageous bond on hundred thousand rubles – the sum for Moscow that the thirtieth simply incomprehensible. Then he settles in a podvalchik and begins … work on the novel about Pontius Pilate of whom till this moment even I didn't think!
One minute! And round whom conversation of "foreigner" Voland with two writers atheists – Berlioz and the Homeless – there, on Patriarchal ponds is formed? Round Pontius Pilate. Fifth procurator of Judea. According to history and Gospel canons, this high-imperious representative of Rome in Judea the cowardice predetermined both common people revelry, and Jesus Christ's terrible execution on Golgotha. The line of the Pilot is fancifully interwoven into narration fabric. Also it is always inseparably linked either with Satanoy-Volandom, or with the Master, or – with Margarita that too it will be far not casual. The narration about Pilat Master creates somehow incomprehensibly simply, even is mechanistic, without visible doubts, creative obstacles, text corrections. There is a feeling that he writes the novel AS THOUGH UNDER SOMEONE'S DICTATION …
We will try to close the ends of both lines in a certain ring. And right there we will be able to feel that the Master writes the novel about Pilat … as though by ear Voland! The arisen logical chain is amazing – the Satan chooses among people there is nobody rather ordinary employee, allocates it with the huge sum of money and rather convenient room for housing. Also starts inspiring in his consciousness the novel about Pilat and the condemned Yahshuah Ga-Notsri. So there is dumb and executive human "loud-hailer" for an embodiment of strange devil idea.
The lawful question – if was necessary for an ubiquitous Satan for something so unexpected novel – why don't it recreate it most?
It is well-known that Mikhail Bulgakov – the son of the priest. He perfectly knew an essence of many and many problems of divinity. And unlike the atheistic population of Moscow thirtieth it perfectly knew that according to theological doctrines, angels are DEPRIVED of the CREATIVE BEGINNING. And the Satan on the primordial essence also is … a fallen angel Lucifer. And for this firm reason itself to be engaged in any creativity it by definition – can't!
Therefore Volandu is necessary the PERFORMER for his embodiment, the volandovsky version of a narration about Pilat and Yahshuah, the mere mortal, but having the right for the creative beginning. What for? On this question we will try to find the answer a bit later.
And now we will try to trace towards to new contours of shape of the hero of the novel and an image of his heroine – not less mysterious Margarita. And again we will remember ordinary estimates and the facts. For many the image of Margarita is an embodiment of fidelity and dedication, it is Elena Sergeevna Bulgakova. Which, having passed with the spouse through all tragic reeves of their destiny, shortly before an instant of Departure of the writer I swore it to publish the novel by all means. Also I constrained it – in 26 years! At that very moment, when without trusting eyes, "Moscow" with the first part "Masters …" pressed to a breast just left issue of the magazine. For Someone this image appears as Goethe Gretchen's "reincarnation", an embodiment of love, feminity, aspiration to give to darling all soul, all nature of nature. Approximately in the same context it is accepted to write and school compositions on Bulgakov Margarita – and it is fine that once forbidden novel became an official subject even for school compositions, but …
But let's remember once again AS WELL AS WHERE at Bulgakov the Master and Margarita for the first time meet.
"… We went on the curve, boring lane silently, I on one party, it – on another. Also wasn't, imagine, in the lane not a soul …" The Master So tells Ivan about the first meeting with the heroine of the novel. Stop!
Something inevitably familiar and already undoubtedly almost invisibly flown on pages of the novel appears in this phrase. Postoyte! Yes here, certainly! The novel beginning, the well-known scene on Patriarchal ponds:
"It should be noted the first strangeness of this terrible May evening. Not only the box, but also in all avenue parallel to Malaya Bronnaya Street, didn't have ANY PERSON (it is allocated by me - Ampere-second. ) ".
Here obvious conclusion. The heroine of the novel is sent to the Master by directly VOLAND. And, as always at the lord of darkness – with precisely certain task and the purpose. What, perhaps, the Satan decided to reward thus the performer of the plans, having presented it the beloved, so to speak, "first-hand"? But … the Master didn't sign any contract on soul sale to the Devil. Yes, however, and without it the weak-willed and passive soul of the one who will be called the Master – undividedly belongs to Volandu. At his will, consciously or involuntarily – but even the first love of the Master is absolutely erased from memory of the hero. Perhaps, for the sake of new love which appeared the true? However, we will get a grasp of the phrase: "The love jumped out before us as from under the earth the murderer in the lane jumps out, - and struck at once both of us! ". We will agree that it is difficult to find in this biting and exact figurativeness at least a uniform ray of light.
Love? But than, the heroine in a podvalchik at the elect generally is engaged? It bakes potatoes, it sews to the hero a hat with a letter "M", (as though confirming that he is a Master! ) . We will reflect – and whether similar "hat" is necessary in principle to Pushkin, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Blok? Is in this hat and frightening similarity to a headdress of the prison prisoner, a lagernik. Yes, horrible image …
… And further – something even more unexpected and discouraging: "It promised glory, it adjusted it – and here began to call the master". What how not a clear temptation glory, cultivation of primordially devil arrogance sprouts here? By the way, and our hero with its already completely zombie will – is completely indifferent to these attempts of cultivation of the vanity proceeding, certainly, all from the same Voland!
And what occurs further? – events and the persecutions which are very typical for this time fall upon the Master, dared to embody the "unlawful" subject to totalitarian measures. Marveling courage and the accuracy of an author's look, we lose sight small, but defining "detail". Whom how not Voland, programmed the act of humiliation and repression of the Master? The new arising question – "what for?" also easily finds the answer. Yes even more strong "to swaddle" "elect", and at the right time – as well as itself "the leader of the people" - to appear his mighty and fair "deliverer" … from the snare and misfortunes. After all and Stalin many considered then as the only judge who is ready to allow any misunderstanding by the highest justice. Truly – "as the pack is fancifully shuffled! " - Korovyev's this aphorism – the next handy Voland – fairly opens an essence and these events …
Penetrating into the novel text, we can't but "stumble" at this moment about very strange things in behavior and Margarita's acts – as it is considered to be, "love and devotion embodiments":
"Absolutely sad days came. The novel was written, there was more nothing to do (get a grasp of these words of the phrase attentively, and Bulgakov's plan will sparkle the new side not apprehended earlier! – Ampere-second. ) … However, we more left now, than before. It left to walk (? ? ? ! ! ! - Ampere-second. ) ".
Speaking more shortly and more simply, Margarita at this terrible moment for the hero shows amazingly "zero" perception of these stunning events in destiny of the beloved. Moreover, it at all doesn't change the habitual way of dwelling in the provided house of the unloved spouse, to tear with which doesn't decide. And in essence leaves the Master to the mercy of fate, to be exact – on a course of things at Voland's will. He – only of all heroes of the novel – understands and knows THAT it creates and for what purpose …
Certain "the acute reader" for certain will find a chain of seeming discrepancies in the novel. Yes, they could be "written off" and for the fact of premature leaving of Bulgakov from life, and for "nezarvershyonnost" the author of the novel. But whether so it in practice?
Here one of characteristic phrases in which adjoins, apparently, not able to be combined. It – about Margarita who has married very influential and representative person, but not knowing happiness in this union: "What was necessary for this woman in the opinion of whom burned any unclear огонёчек what was necessary for THIS to the WITCH SLIGHTLY MOWING ON ONE EYE who has DECORATED THEN in the SPRING with MIMOSAS"? What it, how not unambiguous truly Bulgakov "subnarration" in fact sets of questions of a true origin of the heroine of the novel? And all this is said by the author very long before all devil "metamorphoses", and almost initially and so frankly!
Here in implications and many other accurate matters the image of Margarita which already isn't able in any way to be generalization of an image of Elena Sergeevna unambiguously stands apart. This image absolutely other, it – is more rigid, mistichny, zaputanny in a ball of contradictions. Incarnate feminity? Yes where there? Korovyev's mention of "royal blood" heroines carries it to the most dark, vague and injust acts in depths of the medieval past. And its immoral "relaxedness" which is safely transcending truly devilish shamelessness? And euphoria of ecstasy flight on a sweeper in nakedness, quite "free" from decencies, and ability at the unexpected moment to answer with sharp obscenity?
Here main issue of this section of notes: "Margarita's love to the Master? WHERE PROOFS of THIS FEELING? ". Whether that having missed each other (besides, in a consent with the volandovsky plan of events! ) with the hero whom arrested, it doesn't do resolutely ANYTHING to learn about his destiny? Yes, it is considered to be that the naked Queen Bala Satany Margarita becomes only from aspiration to the Master. But … having spent frenzied, strange and boundless night orgy in an environment of ghosts of the greatest villains of all times and the people – Margarita appears not so as NOT DIRECTED SOUL TO the MASTER. On the contrary, it is in somebody a strange dope of a devastation and detachment. Yes, at the known moment after the Ball she will declare to the Satan the desire to reunite with the Master. However … it will occur only at will of Voland who planned the next performance of "justice restoration" - and at the moment chosen by him exempts the Master from the fetters created by own will.
We will return on new pages to secrets soon "The master and Margarita". But in end of this first part we will try to answer one more inconsistent question. That the phrase – the Sentence to the Master can mean as a hobby any mortal inhabitant of Earth: "He didn't deserve Sveta, he deserved Rest"?
I didn't deserve Sveta … Here, apparently, everything is clear. The shine of heavenly pleasure can't obviously dawn upon the heroes of the novel who have become performers of a plan and will of the Satan. Then that the such – "rest" according to Bulgakov (and, certainly, - on Volanda? It is obvious that it – not an underworld where are tormented in eternal torments of soul of "direct" and clear sinners. No, to the obedient performers Voland won't allow to experience these inconceivable tortures. Then – that it for category - "rest" and how it is found by heroes of the novel of Bulgakov?
And that's it here we are expected by one of the most terrible unexpectedness of creation of Bulgakov which earlier artfully escaped a superficial look. Yes. we SEE how having brought heroes to the necessary area of strange and pointless space, Voland with the suite a whirlwind directs in a chasm. And Margarita conducts the Master somewhere, and on this final journey incessantly whispers to it about certain delights of their eternal house, how candles burn. Almost in the same intonations earlier Voland inspired in the Master an image of music of Schubert, certain strange friends – absolutely impossible in emptiness and silence of Eternity. These words both the Devil, and Margarita – are amazingly similar to suggestion of the hypnotist who seeks to SUPPRESS WILL of the LULLED. Whether so in the ending Margarita's ghost to unfortunate, cracked Ivan Bezdomnomu precisely is? Also will start introducing in his soul again Volandovsky installation of false, hypnotic harmony: "And I will kiss you, and you will have everything as it is NECESSARY! (we will notice, not "well", "harmoniously", namely "as it is necessary", and to whom? – yes to the same lord of darkness! ) … Paradoxicality and accuracy of skill of Bulgakov that the Master falling into eternal Oblivion ONLY HEARS detailed descriptions of the eternal shelter from lips of the companion. But alas – HE DOESN'T SEE IT and ANYTHING ALREADY NEVER WILL SEE! Just as in the ending of the well-known shopenovsky sonata – in hard times of infinite and cold space his soul will forever be dissolved. Not managed to break to Light. Even – to Darkness …
Destiny of soul of Margarita (if this timeless creation of Darkness in general has soul! ) even more mysteriously. It is thought, it at Voland's will got more than once into our world, and, undoubtedly, is in unpredictable appearances. The purpose of its comings is always identical – to confuse someone's rebellious and not so strong spirit. In our century of revelry of devilry of all calibers – it will be easy to it to revolt rest of someone's soul with a new ghost of love, bearing only a devastation and cold. And again to tease our yearned hearts amazing, stunning similarity to eternal and unquenchable symbols of Beauty and eternal Feminity. But forever to remain only lifeless, devilish similarity of these highest concepts of the essence …
to be continued
Director of Theatre named of A.Navoi,
Honored worker of culture of Uzbekistan